Pro-Government Militias

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FDLR (Congo Kinshasa)

Name assigned by coder: no
PGM ID Number: 430
Country: Congo Kinshasa
Date formed: Jan. 1, 1998
Details of Formation: Hutu group, made up of Rwandan refugees and later on Inetrhamwe and ex-FAR (cf). Merged AliR IN 2001. Was supported by Congo govt. between 1998-2001 to fight insurgents and the Rwanda army. Sometimes FLDR is used synonymously with Interhamwe/ex-FAR, but FLDR is a superset of these elements FDLR acting almost continuously in Congo since 90's. Between 1998 and 2002 cooperated with Congo govt against Rwanda and was a pgag. Then Congo signed a peace deal with Rwanda, which entailed withdrawing support and repatriating FDLR and other Rwandan rebels. ssentially they were left alone, in part reflecting weakness of Congo army. Then in September 2007, Congo govt re-allied itself with FDLR in order to fight against another rebel group in the Kivus (a Tutsi rebel militia led by Laurent Nkunda formerly of the Congo army).
Date dissolved: Unknown
Details of Termination: Congo govt. withdrew support for FDLR some time in 2002 and agreed, as part of the peace deal with Rwanda, to repatriate FDLR Rwandan Hutus. Several thousand were repatriated, but the majority remained (unwilling to face justic in Rwanda and unable to leave for a third country) in Congo, periodically raiding the border and generally destabilizing N. and S. Kivu. Later still, the Congo govt. again backed FDLR in 2007 - so pgag 1998-2002 and 2007-
Successor group(s): none
Private Military Company? no
Government Relation: type1
Government Link(s): state/military institution
Training and Equipment yes
Shared Information and Joint Operations yes
Shared personnel no information
Types of Material Support: domestic government; plunder and loot
State Sponsor(s): none
Other Connection(s):
Membership: ethnic; children; foreign nationals
Location: Kivu
Force Strength: [3000, 75000]
Target(s): rebels, insurgents, or other armed group; regular military force
Purpose(s): self-defense and security; destabilise neighbouring countries; fight insurgents
Other Information: