Pro-Government Militias

Pro-Government Militia Website

FDD (Forces for the Defence of Democracy) (Congo Kinshasa)

Name assigned by coder: no
PGM ID Number: 423
Country: Congo Kinshasa
Date formed: Aug. 2, 1998
Details of Formation: Military wing of Burundi Hutu National Council for the Defense of Democracy-- a rebel group in the Burundi civil war. My best guess is that FDD was used in the same way as FDLR/Interhamwe/Ex-FAR, i.e. Congo govt. employed them to fight against the encroaching Rwanda army 98-02. These groups are often mentioned together in the same reports.
Date dissolved: Feb. 24, 2003
Details of Termination: govt. agreed to withdraw support from FDD in the same way as FDLR et al. following the peace agreement with Rwanda et al in July 2001; but reports of continuing support into 2002. FDD signed a deal with Burundi govt. in 2003-and ceased to be reported as alied to Congo govt. from late 2003. ended being pro-government on 2002-09-26, then again being pro-government from 2007-09-14
Successor group(s): none
Private Military Company? no
Government Relation: type1
Government Link(s): state/military institution
Training and Equipment yes
Shared Information and Joint Operations no information
Shared personnel no information
Types of Material Support: domestic government; plunder and loot; military
State Sponsor(s): none
Other Connection(s):
Membership: ethnic; foreign nationals
Location: Kivu
Force Strength: [unknown, unknown]
Target(s): rebels, insurgents, or other armed group; regular military force
Purpose(s): intimidation of ethnic/religious groups; destabilise neighbouring countries; fight insurgents
Other Information:

Evidence